2020-02-28   阅读:117

  From 1G to 5G, the development of mobile communications path From 1G to 5G, road mobile communication development ■ Wu most people talk about history when the country is concerned about the rise and fall of the dynasty of turnover, we tend to ignore the power of technology."Wenjin Book Award" winner, Dr. Wu Jun, a computer expert with a new "Global History of Science and Technology", the series history from the perspective of science and technology, energy and information to the two main lines, sub ancient technology, ancient technology, modern technology and modern science and technology into four parts, detailed describes the key figures in various fields of agriculture, industry, astronomy, geography, biology, mathematics, events and significance of tens of thousands of years, the technology-driven draw of a grand historical picture, showing the charm of science and technology progress superposition.Please special publication Wu combined in Chapter 9, "Information Age", currently on 5G problem of general interest, resolve to do something in simple terms.1G master standards and master the industry high ground we start talking about 1G.The first civilian mobile phone communication world was invented by Motorola.In the 2068 Consumer Electronics Show, the most eye-catching is that it launched the first generation prototype of the commercial mobile phone, then this phone a price of $$ 2,000, weighing 9 kg.A few years later, when it began selling in the market, "weight" dropped to less than 3 kg, but the price is still very expensive.Equipment to communicate, they need to let everyone adhere to a recognized information coding standards, this is the communication standards, which have standard and telegraph telegraph code is the same reason.There is no standard, would not be able to communicate with one another, speak the same language is.There are two communication standards in some of the most important: First, a description of the information sent and received, such as a phone number to call when we use; the second is the way to encode information, such as text is a kind of coded information.Good information is encoded information to ensure the highest possible transmission rate, close to the capacity of the channel.In the development of mobile communications, every ten years, there will be a new set of communication standards.Who has mastered the standard, grasps the commanding heights of industry.In the early mobile communications, the standard is based Motorola developed, later known as 1G.2G phones get smaller entered the 1980s, Nokia and other companies started to develop a new generation of mobile communication devices, and proposed a new mobile communications standard, they are put into use in the beginning of 2091, we call 2G.What is the difference 1G and 2G?Technically, it is an analog circuit 1G, 2G digital circuit; in appearance, 2G 1G phone handset much smaller than, less power, and can easily send and receive text messages.Why 2G phone can be "downsizing"?Since the digital circuit can integrate more digital chip, a substituted hundreds of old chips dedicated chip.Under the influence of Moores Law, the additive effect of this technological progress is more obvious, mobile phones get smaller.Replace 1G 2G is a historical necessity, Nokia is the leader in 2G era.3G is a "half-baked" system can only 2G mobile phone call, send text messages, the Internet is very difficult.3G communication standards will improve the information transfer rate of an order of magnitude, this is a leap that enables the mobile Internet can be achieved, since the phone call function down to a secondary position, and data communication, that is, the Internet has become the main function.However, from 1G to 3G there is a big problem, although it is able to integrate to some extent mobile communication network of Internet use and the original call is made using the communication network, but the essence is still independent of each other.Today, people come back and look it may feel absurd, but if we understand that time and mobile communications to AT & T represented by the traditional telecom companies is how incompatible, not difficult to understand that the.Incompatible making independent mobile network can not benefit from the rapid advances in network technology.2G and 3G mobile phone era with one phone call is actually through physical path is long.3G system is half-baked system, although the label said high speed, but the actual speed is not fast.However, 4G soon emerged.4G is faster result, not the cause of what 4G revolutionary advances it?Some people say that speed is faster.But this is the result, not the cause.In one aspect the use of a flat 4G network structure, reducing the number of times of communication end information transfer, while increasing the bandwidth of the fiber between the base station.More importantly, it also takes advantage of technological advances in the Internet and telecommunications networks, the integration of these two technologies makes the speed of 4G much faster than 3G.But not completely unified, this is an important fact.While the 4G era may soon become the mobile communication speeds in theory, but if a lot of people online at the same time, it is not only fast enough, might even go Rom.In 2020, I attended the National Computer Conference in Hangzhou, nearly ten thousand participants, the hall either 4G or Wi-Fi, not too useful, if you want to take a picture in a circle of friends sharing, the ability to share success depends on luck.This is because the overall speed is not fast enough, partly because a lot of people at the same time and base stations, base station becomes the bottleneck.Typically, a base station coverage radius is 1000 m, under normal circumstances, people within a radius of one kilometer of which are not online at the same time, and therefore give each Internet bandwidth is sufficient, but when we have made when the picture, the total transmission rate exceeds the total bandwidth of the channel, according to Shannons second law, the error rate is 100%, so we have not made.Objectively speaking, 4G in most of the time we are able to meet the current needs of the Internet, but there will be more intelligent devices on stage, they want to access the same time, there will be "congestion venue".how to solve this problem?Some people may think of the bandwidth continue to increase.This is a natural, quite reasonable idea.Although the increase in 2-3 times the bandwidth is not difficult 4G basis, but if you want to increase 1-2 orders of magnitude on the impossible.This aspect greatly increased because the power requirements of the base station, the surrounding base stations as it will become too unsafe electromagnetic radiation; on the other hand, in order to increase bandwidth, it is necessary to increase the frequency range of the communication, but not to the frequency of the radio communication under the expansion, can only scale-up, and the higher the frequency of the radio waves, it is the ability to bypass obstacles worse, when it is high frequency of visible light, you can easily block it with a piece of paper, not to mention the city buildings high-rise.How to do?The easiest way is to improve the communication frequency at the same time, the station was built very close, so as not to fear the building blocked.5G true integration into a network based on the idea, the concept of 5G was brought up.4G is a relatively built in a base station 1000 m, 5G base station is built in the range of one hundred meters radius, the current program is on average two or three meters from the base station.From mobile phones and base stations is reduced, will bring three benefits: the building problem of interference is resolved; fewer people to share the bandwidth; the base station communication range reduced from 1000 meters to 100 meters, power can be reduced two orders of magnitude, so that, electromagnetic radiation around the base station will be greatly reduced.When 5G to two or three meters of the base station crowded even less than 100 meters there is a time, our family probably do not need to install a Wi-Fi.In this way, the Internet and communications networks really fused into a network, which will undoubtedly be a revolution in communication.Each summary generation has led companies from 1G to 2G, to achieve a leap from analog to digital circuit; from 2G to 3G, to achieve a leap from voice communication to data communication; from 3G to 4G, a mobile communications network to achieve and fusion of traditional telecommunications networks, the Internet cloud computing technologies for mobile communications, so that the traffic can be dynamic balance between different regions, greatly improves the bandwidth utilization; from to. 5G 4G, mobile Internet and may be implemented in a wired Internet complete integration.In this way, the Internet will become all things possible.5G soon will our lives, which affect the work produced?First of all, reduced to two or three meters from the base station, base station density per unit area will increase a hundredfold more than 4G, this is a huge national infrastructure construction, construction companies engaged in infrastructure will benefit.So, 5G rumors of an even manufacturing poles are skyrocketing stock companies.Second, any efforts will be dedicated to network convergence is the flow, any attempt to set up a separate, purely based on wireless technology efforts are against the current.A few months ago, I asked the leadership: with todays technology redevelopment similar to Iridium communications system, the feasibility?I said there is no need, because that is against the current.From 1G to 5G, various network convergence is a big trend.Again, extremely fast speeds can stimulate the development of much needed high-speed Internet applications.Summarize half a century since the development of mobile communications, we need only remember four points: unit energy information transfer rate higher and higher; network continued integration; irradiation equipment is getting smaller and smaller; each generation will have a new leading Corporate appear, 1G Motorola, 2G Nokia, 3G, 4G Apple, Google and Qualcomm, Huawei and 5G.Book Excerpt living today we are lucky that we are living in the era of technology explosion.In mid-2017 the number of patent applications worldwide more than 8 million.Although there are a lot of water, but the total number is still quite amazing.If you look at the patent rate of growth is even more amazing.US patent on the worlds most difficult to obtain, for example, in 2003-2015 the Year in 13 years, the United States Patent and Trademark Office approved patent 3,000,000, this number surpassed the United States Patent and Trademark Office since 2002, was founded 200 years to the end of 2002 patent approved sum.In addition to the amazing amount of patent applications, today another feature of technology is to make us feel dazzled.Virtual reality, artificial intelligence, unmanned vehicles, gene-editing, large medical data, block chain and virtual currency, we can see these concepts every day in the media, but what do they mean?Why would emerge overnight?On our lives will have any effect?What the future there will be new technical terms?Technological advances, not only gives us a good life, but also allow people the moment created a lot of anxiety and fear.Often, peoples anxiety and fear stems from a lack of understanding of the world around them, the lack of control of the future.To alleviate and eliminate this anxiety and fear, need to understand the following three things.First, the status and role of science and technology in the space-time universe, namely its role in economic and social life, as well as its role in promoting the process of civilization in history.The former is the spatial dimension point of view, the latter is viewed from the time dimension.From the spatial dimension point of view, the role of technology in the process of civilization is unique, is a progressive force, it is beyond doubt.Industrial Revolution called one of the greatest event in human history.Before the Industrial Revolution, whether East or West, the per capita GDP did not change the nature of the.But after the Industrial Revolution, per capita GDP has grown tremendously in Europe, 200 years increased by 50 times; and in China in just 40 years has increased by 10 times.Therefore, any merit at all times and kings of the Industrial Revolution are not worth mentioning in comparison.The occurrence of the industrial revolution, is to promote science and technology, and then transformed into productive results.This is an important manifestation of science and technology in economic and social life.From the time dimension point of view, science and technology alone can get almost superposition of progressive forces in the world, therefore, its development is accelerating.Achievements of world civilization is reflected in many aspects, from politics and law to literature, art, music, etc., are reflected.Although generally speaking, it is a progressive civilization, but in many ways, past success does not give the future bring progress superposition of.For example, in the arts, there are many historical peak on the back of the front may not be able to go beyond.No one can say beyond the composer Beethoven or Mozart today, Li Bais poems transcend or Shakespeare, Michelangelo painting beyond.Today, however, any one of the three hospitals attending doctors say his medicine for more than 50 years ago, the worlds best doctors.Because medical advances are accumulated, and now doctors not only learned the essence of 50 years ago, doctors of medicine, doctors and master the unknown past treatments.Today, a college student to learn calculus in Newton - Leibniz formula requires only two hours, but Newton and Leibniz had spent 10 years time to establish the formula.As technology has the characteristics of superposition of progress, we have more certainty about its future.Secondly, todays world to achieve the level of civilization is not a coincidence, but has a lot of historical inevitability.And the emergence of the 20th century, a large number of mechanical, power-related technology, a large number of information and related technologies of the 20th century, then there will be a lot of biological and related technologies, which are inherently logical.When we fully understand the process of science and technology in the development of human civilization is how inter-related development, we will be able to grasp the inner logic of technological development, so consciously, effectively the development of technology.Finally, we need to find one or a few main line, from the space dimension to understand the relationship between the fields of science and technology and many branches of science and technology in order to understand the whole picture, while the dimensions of the process of understanding and technological development from the time the law.Although different historians, historians of science and technology and technical experts will give different main line, but the two main lines of the most essential and most easy to use is the energy and information.The two main contents of this book is organized clues.The use of energy and information technology development as the main line of history for two main reasons: First, our world is itself constituted by the energy and information; second, they can quantify the level of technological development, explain the science and technology between the various relationship.People living today are very lucky, because in this day and age, the first man to know the starting point of cosmic time, the starting point of life on Earth, as well as the starting point of human civilization.Of course, the history of many processes we need to continue to understand, then let us energy and information around these two main lines, to see how human civilization is on the development of science and technology, and use them to change the world.


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